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Blue Ocean Strategy Book Summary

“Blue Ocean Strategy” by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne offers a framework for businesses to break away from existing, competitive markets (“red oceans”) and into new, untapped areas of growth (“blue oceans”).

The central idea is to simultaneously pursue low costs and differentiation, creating uncontested markets where competition becomes irrelevant. This strategy rejects the traditional trade-off between value and cost. It emphasizes identifying and exploiting new demand rather than fighting over existing customers.


The core focus of the book is the idea that success doesn’t have to come from bloody battles in existing market spaces. Instead, companies can thrive by creating new, uncontested market spaces – these are the “blue oceans.”

Red Oceans vs. Blue Oceans

  • Red Oceans: Existing markets filled with known competitors battling over a shrinking pool of customers. Companies here aim for a larger market share but ultimately get trapped in a vicious cycle of cutting costs and trying to outperform established players.
  • Blue Oceans: Unexplored market spaces with the potential for high growth and profitability. Here, the rules aren’t set, and companies redefine the industry – essentially making the competition irrelevant. Creating these blue oceans often comes from looking outside conventional industry boundaries.

Why Blue Ocean Strategy?

The authors argue that focusing on blue ocean strategies offers several benefits:

  • Reduced competition: Creating your own market space avoids head-to-head battles with rivals.
  • New demand: Blue oceans tap into a larger pool of potential customers who weren’t being served by existing offerings.
  • Value Innovation: The key is to focus on offering a unique value proposition to customers (through differentiation), while simultaneously optimizing costs to keep prices attractive.

The Six Principles of Blue Ocean Strategy

The book provides a framework of six principles to guide companies toward creating blue oceans:

  1. Reconstruct market boundaries: Don’t limit yourself to traditional industry definitions. Look at alternative industries, other strategic groups, the chain of buyers, complementary products, and even the emotional versus functional appeal of your offering to reimagine your market.
  2. Focus on the big picture: Don’t get bogged down in operational details. Use tools like the Strategy Canvas to visually compare yourself to competitors and identify areas for differentiation.
  3. Reach beyond existing demand: Think beyond your current customer base. Identify groups of non-customers and explore the pain points preventing them from using your industry’s offerings.
  4. Get the strategic sequence right: Ensure your business model aligns with your value innovation. Consider pricing, target costing, adoption hurdles, and profit proposition upfront.
  5. Overcome organizational hurdles: Address the key challenges that may block execution: limited resources, unmotivated employees, or resistance to change.
  6. Build execution into strategy: Involve employees in the strategy-making process. Link strategy to fair rewards and recognition to foster ownership and commitment.

Real-World Examples

1. Cirque du Soleil

  • The Red Ocean: Traditional circuses were facing declining profits – struggling with animal rights criticism, declining child interest, and competition from alternative entertainment.
  • The Blue Ocean: Cirque du Soleil reinvented the circus experience, creating a sophisticated, theatrical performance. They eliminated animals, star performers, and multiple rings while introducing a storyline, live music, and high-quality artistic elements. This appealed to adults willing to pay higher prices.
  • Result: Cirque du Soleil tapped into a new customer segment, achieving tremendous profitability and growth even as traditional circuses floundered.

2. Southwest Airlines

  • The Red Ocean: Air travel was traditionally seen as expensive and time-consuming, with varying levels of service
  • The Blue Ocean: Southwest created a model of short-haul, point-to-point, low cost, no-frills flights targeting car and bus travelers. They focused on quick turnaround, friendly service, and streamlined operations to keep costs down, offering reliable travel at a much lower price point.
  • Result: Southwest opened air travel to a huge new market segment previously ignored by traditional airlines and became highly successful.

3. [yellow tail] Wine

  • The Red Ocean: The wine industry was complex, emphasizing origin, vintage, and using sophisticated terminology, alienating many casual wine drinkers.
  • The Blue Ocean: [yellow tail] simplified the wine experience by focusing on a few easy-drinking varieties, appealing packaging, and emphasizing fun and enjoyment over complicated knowledge.
  • Result: [yellow tail] exploded in popularity, becoming one of the fastest-growing wine brands and attracting a previously untapped market of casual wine consumers.

Other Notable Blue Ocean Examples:

  • Nintendo Wii: With its focus on intuitive motion controls, the Wii opened up gaming to a wider audience beyond hardcore gamers.
  • NetJets: Reinvented the private jet market by offering fractional ownership, providing access to luxury travel with lowered financial commitments.
  • iTunes: Transformed the music industry by shifting away from selling full albums to individual, easily purchased songs.

Key Lessons

“Blue Ocean Strategy” urges companies to break free from the mindset of competing within a confined space. It encourages businesses to:

1. Question the status quo and look for untapped opportunities

  • Breaking mental boundaries: Companies often get trapped in their industry’s traditional way of operating. Blue Ocean Strategy pushes businesses to challenge assumptions about what they offer, who their customers are, and even the basis of competition.
  • Example: Imagine a traditional taxi company. It sees itself competing with other taxi services, focused on things like price, availability, and driver friendliness. A blue ocean mindset might lead them to ask:
    • “What if we target people who avoid taxis due to safety worries?” This could open doors to features like rigorous driver checks or in-ride cameras.
    • “Can we partner with hospitality venues to offer a complete night-out experience?” They now transcend the taxi concept into a larger leisure service.
  • Key point: Blue oceans often emerge when you question “the way things have always been done” and actively seek out hidden spaces between and within industries.

2. Redefine value for customers and challenge cost assumptions

  • Value innovation: This is the core of Blue Ocean Strategy. Forget trying to be both the highest quality and the lowest cost. Instead, ask “what elements do customers truly value, and which elements can be removed, reduced, raised, or created entirely new?”
  • Example: Let’s say you’re a high-end hotel chain. Traditional competition focuses on luxurious rooms, spas, etc. A blue ocean approach could be:
    • Reducing: Maybe elaborate room service is costly and underused.
    • Raising: Unique local experiences valued by guests become a core selling point.
    • Creating: Partnering with tech companies, the hotel offers cutting-edge in-room entertainment far beyond standard TV.
  • Key point: The goal is to provide customers a leap in value while managing your cost structure. This often means being brutally honest about features that are merely industry norms, not core value drivers.

3. Reach beyond existing demand

  • Uncovering non-customers: Blue Ocean thinking focuses on who’s not currently buying in your industry and why. Often, the biggest growth potential lies in turning non-customers into new customers. There are three tiers of non-customers:
    • Tier 1: “Soon-to-be” non-customers on the edge of your market, using minimal offerings or seeking alternatives.
    • Tier 2: “Refusing” non-customers who consciously choose against your market.
    • Tier 3: “Unexplored” non-customers in markets seemingly distant from yours.
  • Example: Consider a luxury watchmaker. Their current focus is on wealthy collectors, but their blue ocean approach could be:
    • Tier 1: Fashion-conscious individuals using smartwatches might be enticed by luxury hybrids offering both style and tech.
    • Tier 2: People turned off by high prices could be reached via a leasing model, offering an “experience” not full ownership.
    • Tier 3: Collaborate with video games to offer virtual, wearable luxury watches, tapping into a whole different audience.
  • Key point: By understanding the pain points and untapped desires of non-customers, companies can unlock vast, new demand.

4. Get the strategic sequence right

  • Aligning the whole picture: Successful blue oceans require a business model built around the new value proposition. The book lays out a sequence:
    1. Buyer Utility: Is there a compelling reason for customers to use this?
    2. Price: Does the price point attract a broad customer base?
    3. Cost: Can you sustainably make a profit at the target price?
    4. Adoption: What barriers might prevent people/companies from using this, and how do you overcome them?
  • Example: Say a company creates a revolutionary educational toy. However, to work, it requires teachers to change their whole curriculum. Even with great utility, if adoption hurdles are too high (retraining, budget constraints, etc.) the idea is unlikely to succeed.
  • Key point: Even a brilliant idea needs the right business model for execution. Blue Ocean Strategy emphasizes thinking about the entire process from the customer’s perspective to ensure it’s commercially viable.

Final Thoughts

“Blue Ocean Strategy” offers a powerful lens to reimagine how businesses view competition and growth. 

While finding blue oceans is challenging, the book provides tools to help companies rethink industry assumptions. Its ultimate message is inspiring – it emphasizes that innovation and success aren’t always about fighting for dominance in a saturated market, but rather about discovering and creating new opportunities where value outweighs rivalry.

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