“How Democracies Die” by Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblatt is a profound exploration of the slow, often unnoticed erosion of democratic norms.
The book, through incisive analysis and historical examples, examines the gradual decay of political institutions through the actions of authoritarian leaders, highlighting how established democracies are vulnerable to collapse not by external forces, but from within, via the erosion of unwritten rules of political conduct.
How Democracies Die Summary
A Democratic Collapse
In the first section of the book, the authors outline the traditional view of democratic collapse, which often conjures images of military coups and violent seizures of power.
They argue that this view is outdated; in contemporary times, democracies die in a much more subtle manner.
Democracies are now more likely to be eroded from within, not by generals and soldiers but by elected leaders—presidents or prime ministers who subvert the very process that brought them to power.
Levitsky and Ziblatt discuss how these leaders exploit legal gray areas and manipulate democratic institutions for their gain.
Mutual Tolerance and Forbearance
The second part of the book is dedicated to the guardrails of democracy: mutual toleration and forbearance.
Mutual toleration refers to the basic respect political opponents must hold for each other, recognizing one another as legitimate participants in the political process, even when in fierce disagreement. Forbearance is the practice of restraint in exercising one’s legal rights. It’s the choice to not use the letter of the law to its fullest extent in order to respect the spirit of democracy.
The authors illustrate how American democracy has historically depended on these soft guardrails, which are norms of behavior rather than formal rules. They emphasize that when these norms are weakened or discarded, it creates a toxic political environment ripe for democratic backsliding.
Levitsky and Ziblatt then explore how democracies around the world have died—not with a bang, but with a whimper. They describe the gradual chipping away of democratic norms, often starting with attacks on the media, the judiciary, and civil society.
These erosions typically begin with the promise of addressing legitimate societal concerns but eventually concentrate power in the hands of the ruling elite. The authors provide numerous international examples of this process, drawing parallels to concerns in the contemporary United States.
A Four Point Framework
The book also serves as a diagnostic tool, presenting a litmus test for identifying authoritarian leaders.
Levitsky and Ziblatt offer a four-point framework to detect potential autocrats:
- a weak commitment to democratic rules
- denial of the legitimacy of political opponents
- tolerance or encouragement of violence
- a propensity to curtail the civil liberties of opponents, including the media.
This framework is applied to assess threats to democracy both past and present, with a particular focus on the erosion of democratic norms in the U.S. under various administrations.
In the final sections, the book turns prescriptive, offering lessons on how to prevent democratic decay.
The authors stress the importance of building and maintaining robust democratic institutions that can withstand the pressures of partisan conflict and power grabs.
They call for a return to the politics of mutual toleration and forbearance, advocating for a bipartisan defense of democratic rules and norms.
The book concludes with an urgent reminder that the survival of democracy is not a given—it must be actively defended by both politicians and the citizenry at large, with an awareness of history and the precariousness of our own democratic institutions.
1. The Importance of Democratic Norms
How Democracies Die underscores the critical role played by unwritten rules or norms in the health and sustainability of a democracy.
As already discussed, two key norms are highlighted: mutual toleration and forbearance.
The lesson here is that for a democracy to thrive, leaders and citizens alike must value and uphold these norms. When these are discarded, it creates a path toward authoritarianism, as leaders may then manipulate the system to entrench their power.
The authors argue that a robust democracy requires a strong commitment to these unwritten rules that govern political conduct, going beyond mere adherence to the constitution and laws.
2. The Subtle Erosion of Democratic Institutions
The book offers a profound insight into how the erosion of democracy is often a gradual process that may go unnoticed until it is too late.
It teaches that democratic backsliding is rarely caused by overt acts like coups or revolutions in modern times. Instead, it occurs through the slow weakening of critical democratic institutions from within.
Elected leaders may erode checks and balances, undermine free press, co-opt the judiciary, and silence opposition, all while maintaining a veneer of democracy.
This lesson warns against complacency and stresses the importance of vigilance among the citizenry.
It emphasizes the need for citizens to be educated about the functions of their institutions and to be alert to even the smallest encroachments on their integrity.
The gradual nature of these changes requires a proactive defense of democratic principles, even in seemingly stable democracies.
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3. Recognizing and Resisting Authoritarian Leaders
Levitsky and Ziblatt provide a valuable framework for identifying leaders with authoritarian tendencies. This framework is a crucial tool for early detection and prevention of democratic decline.
They outline warning signs such as a weak commitment to democratic rules, questioning the legitimacy of political opponents, condoning violence, and restricting civil liberties. The lesson to be learned is that not every threat to democracy will announce itself with clear intentions, and it is often these subtle signs that precede a larger democratic breakdown.
By identifying leaders who exhibit these behaviors, citizens and political figures alike can take early and decisive action to protect democratic norms and institutions.
The book encourages engagement in the political process and calls for collective action against such threats. This includes forming broad coalitions across the political spectrum to defend democratic institutions, even when it is politically costly to do so.
“How Democracies Die” offers a sobering analysis of the fragility of democratic institutions in the face of charismatic, authoritarian-leaning leaders. The authors make it clear that democracy is not self-sustaining—it requires active defense and participation.
The book serves as a warning but also as a call to action, suggesting that the fate of democratic governance lies in the hands of its citizens and their commitment to upholding democratic values.
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