In her profoundly insightful essay “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” Gloria Anzaldúa, a Hispanic-American writer, delves into the intimate relationship between language and identity.
This autobiographical piece, a gem from her 1987 collection “Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza,” also reflects her rich legacy as the co-editor of “A Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color.”
Anzaldúa’s journey starts in an unlikely place: a dentist’s chair.
As a young girl, her unruly tongue, both literally and metaphorically, becomes a symbol of her struggle. The dentist’s irritation with her tongue mirrors society’s discomfort with her linguistic identity.
From schoolteachers chastising her for speaking Spanish to authority figures demanding an “accent-free” English, Anzaldúa highlights a broader cultural attempt to suppress her linguistic heritage.
Silence and Patriarchy: The Gendered Language
Anzaldúa shines a light on the intersection of language and gender. She recalls being told as a child that “well-behaved girls are quiet.” This gendered language, she argues, is steeped in patriarchy, even in the nuances of Spanish where the masculine form often prevails. Her revelation comes when she hears women using ‘nosotras’, an empowering discovery of a linguistic space for women.
Chicano Spanish: A Language of the Borderlands
Chicano Spanish, a language born on the fringes of Mexico and the United States, becomes a central theme. Anzaldúa passionately defends this dialect, often criticized by both English and Spanish speakers. She sees it as a reflection of the Chicano identity, a linguistic tapestry weaving together elements from various languages and dialects, enriched by code-switching.
The Linguistic Evolution of Chicano Spanish
Tracing over 250 years of history, Anzaldúa unveils the evolution of Chicano Spanish. From vowel collapsing to the adoption of archaic Spanish words, she shows how geography and history have sculpted this unique dialect. Chicano Spanish stands as a testament to a resilient culture, absorbing influences yet retaining its distinct essence.
Linguistic Terrorism: The Shame and Struggle
Anzaldúa boldly addresses the internalized shame many Chicanos feel about their language, a phenomenon she terms “linguistic terrorism.” She portrays the Chicano’s dilemma, caught between not speaking “proper” Spanish or English, leading to a sense of linguistic inadequacy. Yet, Anzaldúa advocates for embracing this diversity, seeing it as a cornerstone of the Chicano identity.
Cultural Immersion: Literature, Music, and Food
Anzaldúa’s awakening to her Chicano identity intensifies through literature. She recounts her experiences teaching Chicano literature clandestinely, defying the norms set by authorities. This cultural journey isn’t limited to literature alone; it encompasses the rich tapestry of borderland music, cinema, and cuisine, all of which deeply influence her sense of self.
Identity Beyond Borders: The Chicano Soul
The essay delves into the complex identities of Chicanos living on the borderlands. Anzaldúa explores
how this identity is not just about citizenship or geography, but a “state of soul.” The Chicano experience transcends simple categories like Mexican American or Spanish, weaving in Indigenous heritage and creating a unique cultural mosaic. This dual identity often places Chicanos at a cultural crossroads, neither fully American nor Mexican, yet distinctively both.
The Chicano Movement: A Cultural Renaissance
The 1960s marked a pivotal moment for the Chicano identity. Influenced by figures like Cesar Chavez, Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzalez, and events like the formation of the Raza Unida party, Chicanos began to recognize their unique cultural and linguistic heritage. This era of awakening saw Chicanos embracing their distinct language and culture, even amidst the struggle of existing between two worlds.
Surviving and Thriving: The Future of Chicano Culture
Anzaldúa closes her essay with a hopeful vision. Despite the challenges and the “violent and oppressive American culture,” she believes in the resilience of the mestizas and mestizos. She sees a future where they not only survive but thrive, outliving and reshaping the culture that once sought to suppress them.
1. The Inextricable Link Between Language and Identity
At the heart of Anzaldúa’s essay is the profound exploration of how language shapes and defines identity.
She delves deep into the idea that language is not merely a tool for communication but a vital component of cultural and personal identity. Anzaldúa’s experiences, from being chastised for speaking Spanish to being criticized for her accent in English, highlight the struggles and triumphs of living in a linguistically diverse world.
The essay underscores the way linguistic nuances and dialects, particularly Chicano Spanish, embody the history, struggles, and resilience of a community.
Anzaldúa’s narrative illustrates how language can act as a symbol of resistance against cultural assimilation and a means of preserving heritage, making a compelling case for the power of language in forging and affirming one’s identity.
2. Cultural Hybridity and the Chicano Experience
Anzaldúa’s work is quite vibrant, depicting the life of Chicanos, people living on the borderlands between the United States and Mexico.
This theme of cultural hybridity runs deep, exploring the complexities of having a dual identity in a world that often demands singular allegiances. Through her reflections, Anzaldúa portrays how Chicanos navigate the nuances of two distinct cultures, blending and shifting between them. She brings attention to the challenges of this dual existence, from the struggle to fit into either culture fully to the richness that such a unique perspective brings.
This theme is especially applicable in her discussions of “linguistic terrorism” and the internalized shame associated with not conforming to linguistic norms of either the Spanish or English language.
The essay becomes a celebration of this hybridity, advocating for the acceptance and recognition of the rich, diverse cultural landscape it creates.
3. Gender, Language, and Power
Anzaldúa’s essay is also a critical examination of the intersections between gender, language, and power.
She illuminates how language can be a tool of patriarchal control, particularly in the way women are socialized to use (or not use) their voices. Anzaldúa’s personal anecdotes, such as being told that “well-behaved girls are quiet,” reveal the broader societal pressures on women to conform to submissive roles.
Additionally, she touches upon the gendered aspects of language itself, using the example of the masculine and feminine forms in Spanish to discuss how language can reflect and perpetuate gender biases.
This exploration goes beyond mere critique, transforming into a call for empowerment, where Anzaldúa champions the use of language as a form of resistance against patriarchal norms, urging women, especially those from marginalized communities, to reclaim their voices and narratives.
In “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” Gloria Anzaldúa doesn’t just tell her story; she weaves a narrative of resilience, cultural identity, and linguistic pride. Her essay is a powerful reminder of the inextricable link between language and self, a call to embrace our diverse tongues as integral parts of our identity.