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I Must Betray You Summary, Characters and Themes

In the heart of a tumultuous Romania, under the shadow of Nicolae Ceauşescu’s oppressive regime, Ruta Sepetys’s historical novel “I Must Betray You” unfolds. 

Published in 2022, this young adult novel draws us into the life of Cristian Florescu, a 17-year-old navigating the treacherous waters of loyalty, betrayal, and the quest for freedom in the final days of 1989.


Cristian’s world is one of scarcity, fear, and constant surveillance. Living with his family in Bucharest, he is coerced into becoming an informant by the Securitate. 

In exchange for medication for his grandfather Bunu’s supposed leukemia, Cristian must spy on the Van Dorns, an American diplomat family. Taking the code name “Oscar,” he enters a perilous game of espionage, his every move shadowed by guilt and the fear of discovery.

As Cristian grapples with his conscience, he finds solace in secret encounters with Liliana Pavel, a schoolmate and his burgeoning love interest. Together, they share stolen moments and forbidden Western luxuries, such as Coca-Cola and chocolate, their bond deepening amidst the deprivation and despair of their surroundings.

Cristian’s clandestine activities and the strain of his double life take a toll. 

When Liliana accuses him of betraying her father, their relationship fractures, leaving Cristian isolated. The situation worsens with the shocking death of Bunu, not from leukemia, but from a brutal beating—a casualty of his anti-government stance, revealing a harrowing truth about the extent of the regime’s cruelty.

Fueled by the unfolding revolutions in neighboring countries and the stirrings of dissent within Romania, Cristian becomes embroiled in the burgeoning resistance. 

His decision to pass a revealing notebook to Mr. Van Dorn, hoping to expose the regime’s atrocities to the world, marks a daring step towards defiance. However, the path of revolt is fraught with danger, betrayal, and loss.

As the tide of change sweeps through Romania, Cristian finds himself at the heart of a historic revolution. 

Amidst chaos and violence, friendships are tested, loyalties are questioned, and Cristian’s journey takes him from the depths of despair to the brink of a new beginning. 

The fall of Ceauşescu brings a tumultuous mix of triumph and tragedy, as Cristian navigates the aftermath of revolution and the personal reckonings that follow.

Decades later, Cristian reflects on the events that shaped his life and the sacrifices made for freedom. 

Now a teacher, he imparts his story to a new generation, encapsulating the enduring spirit of resistance and the complex tapestry of human resilience.

I Must Betray You Summary


Cristian Florescu

Cristian, the 17-year-old protagonist, embodies the internal conflict and moral dilemmas faced by many living under oppressive regimes. As an unwilling informant for the Securitate, he grapples with guilt, fear, and the weight of betrayal, especially towards his family and Liliana, his love interest. 

His journey from a coerced spy to a key figure in the resistance showcases his growth in courage, resilience, and determination to fight for freedom, despite the personal costs.

Liliana Pavel

Liliana is Cristian’s schoolmate and the object of his affection. She represents the innocence and vulnerability of youth under surveillance, as well as the strength found in defiance. 

Her initial trust in Cristian, followed by betrayal and eventual reconciliation, mirrors the complexities of relationships forged in times of crisis. Liliana’s journey highlights the transformative power of trust and forgiveness in the face of betrayal.

Bunu (Grandfather)

Bunu is a symbol of the older generation’s resistance against the communist regime. His outspoken criticism of Ceauşescu and subsequent murder by the Securitate exemplify the regime’s brutal suppression of dissent. 

Bunu’s character serves as a catalyst for Cristian’s awakening to the realities of his government’s tyranny and propels Cristian towards active resistance.

Cici Florescu

Cristian’s older sister, Cici, is a complex character who embodies the moral ambiguity and difficult choices faced by individuals under totalitarian rule. Her involvement with the Securitate, initially viewed as a betrayal by Cristian, is later revealed to have been a desperate attempt to secure freedom for her family. 

Cici’s actions highlight the nuanced nature of collaboration and resistance, challenging simplistic judgments about loyalty and betrayal.

The Van Dorn Family

The Van Dorns, an American diplomat family, serve as a contrast to the oppressive environment in which Cristian lives. Their home is a gateway to Western culture and ideas, offering Cristian a glimpse of freedom and alternative ways of life. 

They indirectly contribute to Cristian’s political awakening and his decision to take a stand against Ceauşescu’s regime.

Paddle Hands (Government Agent)

The government agent, nicknamed “Paddle Hands” by Cristian, represents the face of the regime’s surveillance and control apparatus. 

His manipulation of Cristian and other citizens underscores the pervasive influence of the Securitate in everyday life. He is a constant reminder of the dangers that Cristian and his family face, embodying the oppressive force against which the characters struggle.


1. The Moral Complexities of Betrayal and Survival

At the heart of Sepetys’s novel lies the exploration of betrayal, not merely as an act of disloyalty but as a survival tactic within a repressive regime. 

Cristian’s role as an informant, coerced by the promise of medicine for his grandfather, throws him into a moral quandary that challenges the reader’s understanding of right and wrong. 

This theme delves into the psychological turmoil of living a double life, where the lines between victim and perpetrator blur. 

Cristian’s struggle reflects the broader societal dilemma faced by many under dictatorial rule, where the act of betrayal becomes a means to an end, raising questions about the cost of survival in an oppressive state.

2. The Power and Price of Resistance

Resistance, both as an act of defiance and as a symbol of hope, threads through the narrative, showcasing the courage required to stand against tyranny. Cristian’s evolution from a reluctant informant to an active participant in the resistance movement embodies the transformative power of rebellion. 

Through his journey, the novel highlights the sacrifices made by individuals and communities in the fight for freedom and justice. 

This theme is not only a testament to the resilience of the human spirit but also a sobering reminder of the heavy toll extracted by such resistance, illustrated by personal losses and the brutal crackdown by the regime. 

Sepetys doesn’t shy away from depicting the harsh realities of revolt, forcing readers to confront the paradox of fighting for peace at the cost of human life.

3. The Search for Identity and Autonomy in Oppressive Circumstances

Cristian’s narrative is also a poignant exploration of identity formation under the shadow of oppression. 

As he navigates the complexities of adolescence, his forced role as an informant, and his burgeoning political consciousness, Cristian’s journey is emblematic of the struggle for personal autonomy within a repressive society. 

This theme is amplified by the characters’ clandestine engagements with Western culture, which serve as acts of rebellion against a regime that seeks to control every aspect of individual identity. 

Sepetys effectively illustrates how the quest for personal freedom and self-expression can become acts of resistance in their own right, challenging state-imposed narratives and fostering a sense of individuality amidst conformism.

Final Thoughts

“I Must Betray You” is a compelling exploration of courage, betrayal, and the quest for freedom within the confines of a repressive regime. 

Ruta Sepetys masterfully weaves a narrative that is not only a testament to the resilience of the human spirit but also a reminder of the complexities of history and the personal stories that define it. 

Through Cristian’s eyes, readers experience the weight of impossible choices, the pain of betrayal, and the luminous power of hope. This novel is a powerful tribute to those who dare to resist oppression and the unbreakable bonds that sustain them through the darkest times.