“Measure What Matters” is a book written by John Doerr, a venture capitalist who has been associated with multiple successful companies including Google, Amazon, and Intel.
Quick Summary: The book highlights the importance of setting, communicating, and monitoring clear goals to achieve organizational success. It focuses on the concept of Objectives and Key Results (OKRs), a goal-setting framework that Doerr introduced to Google in its early days, and which played a significant role in its phenomenal growth.
Measure What Matters Summary
- Introduction to OKRs: Objectives and Key Results (OKRs) are a goal-setting system. The “Objective” is what one wants to accomplish, and the “Key Results” are the measurable steps needed to achieve that objective.
- Origins: Doerr traces the roots of OKRs back to Andy Grove, the legendary Intel CEO. It was at Intel that Doerr learned about the OKR system, which he later introduced to numerous companies, most notably Google.
- Benefits of OKRs:
- Focus: By setting clear objectives, organizations can concentrate their efforts on what truly matters.
- Alignment: OKRs ensure everyone in the organization is moving in the same direction by making goals transparent to all.
- Commitment: When teams have a say in setting their OKRs, they’re more committed to achieving them.
- Tracking: Regular check-ins ensure progress is monitored and teams remain accountable.
- Stretching: Ambitious OKRs can drive teams to achieve more than they thought possible.
- Difference between Commitment OKRs and Aspirational OKRs:
- Commitment OKRs: These are goals that teams commit to achieving without fail.
- Aspirational OKRs: These are stretch goals, designed to push the team, and they acknowledge that even partial achievement is commendable.
- CFRs – Conversations, Feedback, and Recognition: While OKRs provide the goal-setting structure, CFRs represent the human side of the equation, ensuring continuous communication, feedback, and recognition within teams.
- Setting Effective OKRs: Doerr suggests that effective OKRs are:
- Transparent: Everyone in the organization should see what others are working on.
- Simple and Clear: Avoid jargon and complexities.
- Measured on a Set Schedule: Typically, companies review them quarterly and set them annually.
- Linked to Compensation Cautiously: Directly tying OKRs to bonuses or salaries can promote risk-averse behavior.
- Google’s Adoption of OKRs: Larry Page, co-founder of Google, has credited OKRs for helping the company grow from 40 employees to over 60,000 today. Google’s adoption of the framework serves as a case study throughout the book.
- Other Case Studies: Beyond Google, Doerr shares how various organizations, from non-profits like the Gates Foundation to startups like YouTube, have utilized OKRs to drive success.
- Potential Pitfalls:
- Setting too many OKRs: This can dilute focus.
- Confusing output with outcomes: The focus should be on the impact, not just activities.
- Setting ‘Sandbagged’ OKRs: These are too easy and don’t challenge the team.
- Neglecting to adjust OKRs: Sometimes they may need revision in light of changing circumstances.
- Continuous Learning: Implementing OKRs is a learning process, and organizations need to iterate and refine their approach as they go.
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- The Power of Clear and Measurable Goals
An organization, regardless of its size, thrives when its members are guided by clear objectives. By adopting OKRs, teams can set straightforward goals (Objectives) and then outline the specific, measurable steps (Key Results) to achieve them. When goals are clear and quantifiable, it becomes easier to track progress, make necessary adjustments, and attain desired outcomes.
Takeaway: Instead of vague aspirations, adopt a structured approach to goal-setting, ensuring goals are both clear and measurable.
- Alignment and Transparency Foster Collaboration
One of the foundational principles of OKRs is transparency. Everyone in the organization, from the top executives to the newest interns, should be able to see each other’s OKRs. This transparency ensures that everyone understands the company’s primary objectives and their role in achieving them. By aligning individual and team OKRs with the organization’s broader goals, every member becomes a collaborator in the journey toward success.
Takeaway: Foster a culture of open communication where goals at all levels are visible to everyone, promoting collaboration and ensuring everyone is pulling in the same direction.
- Distinguishing Between “Safe” and “Stretch” Goals
Doerr introduces the concept of Commitment OKRs and Aspirational (or Stretch) OKRs. Commitment OKRs are those the team commits to achieving and are considered “safe” goals.
On the other hand, Aspirational OKRs are ambitious, challenging the team to push beyond its limits. While they might not always be achieved, they serve to inspire and drive innovation.
Recognizing the difference between the two ensures teams are held accountable where necessary but also encouraged to dream big.
Takeaway: Not all goals are created equal. While it’s crucial to have reliable targets, injecting ambitious aspirations can ignite passion and drive innovation.
- Regular Reflection and Adaptation are Crucial
The OKR system isn’t just about setting and forgetting. It’s a dynamic process where regular check-ins are vital. Teams should reflect on their progress, see where they’re on track, and identify areas needing adjustment.
This agile approach to goal management ensures that even if priorities shift or unforeseen challenges arise, the organization remains adaptable and resilient.
Takeaway: Never be too rigid with goals. The landscape of business and innovation is ever-evolving, and regular reflection allows teams to adapt and overcome new challenges.
“Measure What Matters” underscores the importance of goal-setting and provides us with a detailed roadmap on how to implement and benefit from the OKR framework. Doerr’s anecdotes, drawn from his extensive experience with tech giants and other organizations, drive home the transformative potential of OKRs when applied effectively.
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