Notes From Underground Summary, Characters and Themes

Fyodor Dostoevsky’s ‘Notes from Underground’ is a novella that delves into the existential angst and introspection of its protagonist, the ‘underground man’. 

Set in 19th-century Russia, it masterfully explores themes of rationality, free will, and the human condition, challenging traditional notions of society and personal identity.”

Full Summary

Part 1

The novella begins with an author’s note, introducing a fictional ‘underground man’, a character emblematic of his generation. This unnamed protagonist, residing in self-imposed isolation for two decades, reveals his complex nature to the readers. 

He’s a former civil servant, characterized by his spite, illness, and disdain for societal norms.

Central to the narrative is the underground man’s assertion of his ‘overly acute consciousness’, a trait he deems a disease. 

This hyper-awareness paralyzes him, making action and decision-making almost impossible. He contemplates the simplistic nature of the ‘men of action’ who blindly follow natural laws and mathematical truths, like ‘two times two makes four’. 

In contrast, he revels in the irrationality and chaos of human nature, challenging the deterministic worldview.

A striking aspect of the underground man’s philosophy is his finding pleasure in suffering and being disagreeable. He questions the possibility of self-respect in someone highly conscious and acknowledges his inability to sincerely apologize, often acting out of sheer boredom and spite.

The underground man critiques the notion of humans acting in their best interests, driven by rationality and logic.

He argues against the utopian ideal of a ‘crystal palace’, a symbol of scientific and societal perfection, favoring the unpredictability and free will inherent in human nature. He sees rationality as a constraint, preferring the idea that ‘two times two makes five’.

Part 2

The second part of the novella shifts to a retrospective narrative of the underground man at 24. 

His life oscillates between a desire for social connection and a deep-seated contempt for others. He recounts an incident involving an officer, symbolizing his struggle for recognition and respect. 

This part of the story culminates in a humiliating experience at a farewell dinner and a subsequent encounter with a young prostitute named Liza.

The interaction with Liza is pivotal, revealing the underground man’s complex emotional state. He oscillates between wanting to help her and asserting his dominance, ultimately pushing her away. 

This encounter, laden with guilt, shame, and a struggle for power, encapsulates the underground man’s conflicted nature.

The novella ends with the underground man stopping his narrative, declaring his shame in exposing such raw and unfiltered thoughts. Dostoevsky, through this complex character, delves into the depths of existential despair, freedom, and the human condition. 

‘Notes from Underground’ remains a timeless reflection on the struggles of individuality and society, influencing countless thinkers and writers in its wake.

Notes From Underground Summary


The Underground Man

The central figure of Dostoevsky’s ‘Notes from Underground’, the Underground Man is a 40-year-old former civil servant, living a reclusive life on the outskirts of society. He is introspective, yet incapable of forming meaningful connections, marked by a deep sense of self-loathing and spite. 

His narrative, laced with sarcasm and cynicism, reveals a man paralyzed by his overconsciousness, leading to habitual self-sabotage and social awkwardness. 

His interactions are fraught with insecurities and power struggles, particularly evident in his relationship with Liza, highlighting his inability to reconcile his intellectualism with emotional depth.


A young, 20-year-old woman working in a brothel, Liza represents innocence and vulnerability in the harsh setting of Dostoevsky’s narrative. 

Initially resigned to her fate, her encounter with the Underground Man sparks a flicker of hope for a different life, only to be met with disillusionment. 

Liza’s character serves as a foil to the Underground Man, her reactions and eventual assertiveness in rejecting his demeaning gesture of offering money underscore her as a tragic yet resilient figure, trapped in the societal constraints of her time.


1. The Paradox of Consciousness and Inaction

The novel delves deeply into the theme of hyperconsciousness, a state where acute self-awareness becomes a paralyzing force. 

The protagonist, the underground man, represents this theme vividly. He is so intensely self-conscious that he becomes incapable of making meaningful decisions or taking decisive actions. 

This heightened state of consciousness leads him to incessant overthinking, resulting in a perpetual state of inaction and indecisiveness. 

Dostoevsky uses this character to explore how excessive introspection and awareness can lead to a kind of existential paralysis. The underground man’s constant analysis and questioning of every motive and action render him incapable of being a ‘man of action’. 

This theme is a critical exploration of how human consciousness, while a defining trait of our species, can also become a debilitating curse, trapping individuals in a cycle of inaction and despair.

2. Rebellion Against Societal Rationality and the Search for Individual Freedom

The story strongly critiques the idea of a society governed purely by logic and rationality. The underground man’s disdain for the concept of a ‘crystal palace’ – a metaphor for a utopian society built on rational principles – underscores this theme. 

He argues that such a world would deny the fundamental aspects of human nature: irrationality, free will, and unpredictability. Dostoevsky, through his protagonist, suggests that a life governed solely by reason and logic is not only unattainable but also undesirable. 

The underground man cherishes his ability to make irrational choices, seeing it as an exercise of his free will and a rebellion against the deterministic nature of society. This theme is an exploration of the human desire for freedom and individuality, which often comes into conflict with societal norms and expectations. 

It raises profound questions about the nature of human freedom and the limits imposed by a society that values rationality and order above all.

3. The Complexity of Suffering and Pleasure

Throughout the story, Dostoevsky explores the intricate relationship between suffering and pleasure. 

The underground man often finds a perverse kind of satisfaction in his own misery and degradation. This theme is exemplified in his assertion that there is a pleasure to be found in experiencing a toothache. 

The underground man’s life is a series of contradictions where he deliberately seeks out situations that will lead to his suffering, finding a strange sense of identity and existence in this pain. This masochistic tendency is also evident in his interactions with others, where he often provokes negative reactions to experience humiliation and rejection. 

Dostoevsky uses this theme to delve into the depths of the human psyche, examining how suffering and pleasure are not always mutually exclusive. 

This exploration serves to highlight the complex and often contradictory nature of human emotions and desires, challenging the conventional understanding of what brings humans happiness and fulfillment.

Final Thoughts

‘Notes from Underground’ is a profound and introspective work that delves deep into the psyche of its protagonist. Dostoevsky masterfully presents a character who is both deeply flawed and intensely relatable, encapsulating the existential struggles of modern man. 

The novella not only reflects the societal and philosophical concerns of 19th-century Russia but also resonates with the ongoing human quest for meaning and identity in a complex world.