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Start With Why by Simon Sinek | Book Summary

“Start With Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone to Take Action” is a 2009 book written by Simon Sinek. 

Sinek explores the idea that successful organizations and individuals are those that manage to communicate why they do what they do, rather than focusing on what they do or how they do it.

Start With Why Summary

Here’s a detailed summary of the key points and ideas from the book:

The Golden Circle

Sinek introduces a model called The Golden Circle, which has three layers:

  1. Why – This is the core belief of the business or individual. It’s why the business exists.
  2. How – This is how the business fulfills that core belief.
  3. What – This is what the company does to fulfill that core belief.

Most organizations start from the outside of the circle and work their way in, explaining what they do and how they do it. However, Sinek posits that the most inspiring and successful organizations instead start with explaining their why and then describe how they fulfill that why, and finally, what they do as a result of that belief.

Inspiration and Motivation

Sinek argues that people are not motivated by what you do, but why you do it. By starting with why, you can inspire others to take action. This is because the “why” taps into the parts of the brain associated with feelings and decision-making, while the “what” and “how” deal with analytical and rational thoughts.

The Two Ways to Influence Human Behavior

Sinek posits two methods to influence human behavior: manipulation and inspiration

While manipulation (which includes price, promotions, fear, aspirational messages, novelty, peer pressure) can lead to transactions, it does not foster loyalty. 

Inspiration, however, attracts loyal customers and employees who are drawn to the why of the organization.


Leaders who understand their “why” are better able to inspire those around them, while those who lead only with “what” and “how” cannot. 

Leaders who start with “why” use their work to inspire action and make a difference. This is demonstrated through a variety of examples, including that of the Wright Brothers and their pursuit of flight

Their success is attributed to their strong “why” of changing the course of the world, which attracted a loyal team that believed in their vision.

Trust and Loyalty

The book also emphasizes the importance of trust and loyalty. By being consistent in the organization’s why, trust is built. When people are loyal to a product or company, they’re not doing so because of rational factors like price or features, but because they have an emotional connection or trust in the underlying values or beliefs.

Crossing the Chasm

Sinek also touches on the diffusion of innovation theory, explaining how ideas spread in the marketplace, using the terminology “early adopters,” “early majority,” “late majority,” and “laggards.” 

He introduces the concept of “The Law of Diffusion of Innovation” and describes a “tipping point” or “chasm” between the early adopters and the early majority. 

Those who lead with why are more successful in crossing this chasm and achieving mass-market success.

Start With Why Summary

What can you learn from the book?

Inspiration trumps manipulation

Sinek argues that manipulation strategies such as price reductions, promotions, fear, peer pressure, and novelty can achieve only short-term gains. 

In contrast, inspiring with a clear “Why” creates long-term success and loyalty without resorting to constant manipulation. For instance, businesses often slash prices to attract customers, but this doesn’t breed loyalty – the customers will likely go where they find the next best deal. 

However, if a company can communicate its “Why” effectively and that resonates with the customers’ belief, they are more likely to remain loyal.

The Role of Trust

Sinek suggests that organizations must establish trust to sustain long-term relationships with their customers. 

Trust is built when customers believe in your “Why” and see it consistently reflected in “How” you operate and “What” you provide. Companies that are inconsistent or ambiguous about their “Why” struggle to build this trust. 

For example, companies like Southwest Airlines have been successful due to their clear “Why” of making air travel affordable and enjoyable, resulting in consistent customer experiences that build trust over time.

Leaders Must Embody the Why

Effective leaders, according to Sinek, are those who understand, believe, and embody their organization’s “Why.” 

These leaders inspire others not because of the power they hold, but because they lead with a purpose that others can identify with and rally around. 

Leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. and Steve Jobs exemplify this concept. 

They communicated a clear “Why,” embodied it, and inspired others to follow them in pursuit of that purpose.

The Power of a Strong Why in Decision-Making

A clear “Why” can act as a guiding principle in decision-making processes. When faced with a difficult choice, referring back to the “Why” can often help clarify what actions align best with the core purpose and values of the individual or the organization. 

For example, when faced with the choice of launching a music device, Apple referred back to their “Why” of challenging the status quo

This led them to create the iPod, a product significantly different from their core computer business but still aligned with their overarching purpose.

Final Thoughts

Overall, “Start With Why” has resonated with many readers and leaders who seek to create a strong sense of purpose and direction in their personal and professional lives. 

However, like any book, opinions on its effectiveness may vary, and it’s always valuable to approach such works with a critical mindset and adapt their principles to one’s unique circumstances and context.

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