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The Sympathizer Summary, Characters and Themes

“The Sympathizer” is a novel written by Vietnamese-American author Viet Thanh Nguyen. It was published in 2015 and won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2016. 

The novel follows the story of a Vietnamese communist spy who works as a mole in the South Vietnamese Army and later escapes to the United States after the fall of Saigon. The protagonist reflects on his experiences during and after the Vietnam War, grappling with questions of identity, loyalty, and the complexities of political ideologies. 


In a world divided by war, a tale unfolds through the eyes of a man of two worlds. “The Sympathizer” takes us deep into the heart of a divided Vietnam, narrated by an enigmatic figure: a spy, whose life is a testament to the complexity of loyalty, identity, and war. 

As Saigon falls, he stands beside a high-ranking General, his allegiance hidden beneath the facade of a trusted aide. Yet, his soul harbors secrets—his true loyalty lies with the Communist cause, a spy observing from within the enemy’s ranks.

Their journey from the chaos of Saigon’s last days to the unfamiliar streets of Los Angeles is marked by loss, adaptation, and the unyielding bonds of friendship. The narrator, along with the General and his circle, navigates a new life in America, where past loyalties and future dreams collide. The city becomes a stage for the continuation of conflict, with plans of counterrevolution simmering beneath the surface.

In this foreign landscape, the narrator’s life intertwines with characters each carrying their own stories of displacement and resilience. From the companionship with Ms. Mori, finding solace in shared otherness, to the bond with Sonny, a beacon from the past, each relationship weaves into the fabric of his double existence. 

His covert communication with Man, a friend and Communist revolutionary, keeps him tethered to the cause, even as he moves in circles that plan its downfall.

The narrator’s journey takes a darker turn with the plotting of an innocent man’s assassination—a decision that haunts him as he delves deeper into the shadows of espionage. 

His path crosses with Hollywood, where he seeks to influence the portrayal of the Vietnamese people, only to face disillusionment. Yet, it’s the General’s relentless ambition that propels them towards a perilous mission in Thailand, a decision that will alter their fates irreversibly.

Captured and confined in a reeducation camp, the narrator’s past and present collide in a harrowing reexamination of his actions, beliefs, and the very essence of his identity. The final confrontation with Man, now the Commissar, in a grueling test of endurance and spirit, reveals the deep scars of war, friendship, and the quest for redemption.

The Sympathizer Summary, Characters and Themes


Unnamed Narrator

The narrator, a product of a mixed heritage with a French father and a Vietnamese mother, exemplifies duality in every aspect of his life. 

As a Communist spy infiltrating the South Vietnamese ranks, his existence is a perpetual act of balance between opposing worlds. His intelligence and cultural adaptability, honed through a scholarship in the United States, make him a formidable spy. 

Yet, his personal life is marked by complexity; he is both a lover and a friend, deeply empathetic yet burdened by the moral compromises of espionage. His humor and wit offer a stark contrast to the darker undertones of his mission, highlighting the human capacity to find light in the darkest of situations.


A figure of unwavering loyalty and tragedy, Bon embodies the personal cost of war. His staunch anti-Communism is rooted in personal loss, which defines his character and motivations. 

Bon’s life, marred by the loss of his family, becomes singularly focused on retribution, illustrating how grief can transform into a driving force for vengeance. Despite his rough exterior and simplicity, Bon’s depth is revealed in his loyalty and the profound sense of loss that shapes him.

Man/The Commissar

Man represents the ideological conviction and personal sacrifices of the revolutionary. His physical disfigurement mirrors the internal scars borne by those deeply involved in the conflict. 

As the Commissar, he embodies the paradox of revolutionary ideals juxtaposed with the harsh realities of power and control. His relationship with the narrator, marked by deep friendship and later, brutal honesty, highlights the complex interplay between personal loyalties and political commitments.

The General

The General is a figure of authority and tradition, struggling to navigate the disorienting shift from power in Vietnam to a life in exile. His determination to counteract the Communist victory with a counterrevolution underscores the persistence of conflict even in defeat. 

The General’s complex relationship with the narrator, characterized by trust and betrayal, underscores the intricate web of loyalties and deceptions that define espionage.

The Crapulent Major

A tragic figure, the crapulent major’s wrongful death symbolizes the collateral damage of war and espionage. 

His characterization as a loving family man contrasts sharply with the ruthless necessities of spy work, highlighting the moral ambiguities that the narrator must navigate. His death serves as a haunting reminder of the personal toll extracted by the demands of loyalty and duty.


Sonny’s murder marks a turning point for the narrator, embodying the personal cost of loyalty to cause over individuals. 

As a former classmate and the embodiment of potential for a different life, Sonny’s death at the narrator’s hands underscores the irreversible choices made in the name of espionage. The resultant guilt and haunting signify the deep internal conflicts faced by those caught in the machinery of war.

Ms. Sofia Mori

Ms. Mori offers a glimpse into the complexities of identity and belonging in the diaspora. Her relationship with the narrator is emblematic of the search for connection and understanding amidst the cultural dislocation experienced by immigrants. 

She represents modernity and a break from traditional roles, challenging the narrator to consider the multifaceted nature of identity.

The Auteur

A representation of Western cultural imperialism and the misrepresentation of Vietnamese stories, the Auteur’s conflict with the narrator highlights the struggle for accurate representation and the power dynamics of storytelling. His character serves as a critique of how narratives are shaped and distorted by those in positions of power.


Lana’s character challenges traditional expectations and the generational divide in immigrant families. Her relationship with the narrator is fraught with the complexities of loyalty, betrayal, and the search for personal identity. She embodies the tension between embracing new cultures and the pull of heritage, illustrating the nuanced struggles of second-generation immigrants.


1. The Scar of Identity

At the heart of “The Sympathizer” lies a deep exploration of identity, particularly through the lens of its protagonist, a man torn between two worlds. 

His heritage serves as a metaphor for the broader theme of cultural and political duality. Throughout the novel, the narrator’s split loyalty—serving a South Vietnamese general while secretly sympathizing with the Communist cause—mirrors his struggle with his own dual identity. 

This theme delves into the complexities of belonging and the internal conflict faced by those who navigate between different cultures, ideologies, and allegiances. 

The novel scrutinizes how identity is shaped and reshaped in the context of displacement, war, and the quest for personal and political autonomy, presenting a nuanced portrayal of the challenges faced by individuals caught in the crossfire of history.

2. The Morality of War and Espionage

“The Sympathizer” offers a compelling examination of the moral ambiguities of war and espionage. Through the narrator’s journey, the novel critiques the dehumanizing effects of conflict and the ethical dilemmas inherent in undercover operations. 

The protagonist’s role as a spy places him in situations where loyalty, betrayal, and survival blur the lines between right and wrong. The assassination of the crapulent major, the manipulation of friendships for intelligence, and the ultimate betrayal of comrades highlight the psychological toll of living a lie for a perceived greater good. 

The novel probes the question of whether the ends justify the means and the personal cost of committing acts of violence in the name of ideology or national interest. 

Through its depiction of war’s aftermath and the lengths to which individuals go to achieve their objectives, the story underscores the profound impact of conflict on the human psyche and moral compass.

3. Exile and Displacement

The theme of exile and displacement resonates throughout the novel, capturing the profound sense of loss and longing experienced by refugees. 

As the narrator and his companions flee Saigon and adjust to life in Los Angeles, their struggles reflect the broader experiences of displacement faced by millions of people during and after the Vietnam War. 

The novel explores the challenges of building a new life in a foreign land, the preservation of cultural identity amidst assimilation, and the ongoing connection to the homeland. Through characters like the General, who clings to the dream of reclaiming his country, and Bon, who grapples with personal loss in the chaos of evacuation, the narrative highlights the emotional and existential toll of exile. 

Ultimately, the story portrays exile not just as a physical dislocation but as a state of being, where memories of the past and hopes for the future collide in the search for belonging and homecoming.

Final Thoughts

“The Sympathizer” is not just a spy novel but a profound exploration of the human condition, set against the backdrop of a war that divided a nation and its people. 

It’s a narrative that questions the price of freedom, the weight of loyalty, and the enduring quest for a place to call home, leaving readers to ponder the complexities of conflict and the indomitable spirit of those caught within its grasp.