Angels in America Summary, Characters and Themes

“Angels in America” is a play by Tony Kushner, set against the backdrop of the 1980s, an era deeply scarred by the AIDS crisis and political turmoil. 

This Pulitzer Prize-winning drama is renowned for its rich, complex characters and its blend of realistic and fantastical elements. The play is a compelling exploration of themes such as identity, sexuality, politics, and the enduring quest for meaning in times of crisis. 

Full Summary

“Angels in America” weaves a compelling narrative that intertwines the lives of two couples facing profound challenges. 

Louis Ironson, and his lover, Prior Walter, confront a life-altering crisis when Prior reveals he has AIDS. 

Louis, overwhelmed with fear, struggles to support Prior, ultimately failing under the pressure. Concurrently, Mormon lawyer Joe Pitt, working under the mentorship of the fiercely conservative Roy Cohn, faces his own turmoil. 

Joe’s wife Harper, battling valium addiction and plagued by anxiety and hallucinations, resists their potential move to Washington, D.C.

The paths of these characters intersect in unexpected ways. 

Joe and Louis form an unlikely bond, grounded in Louis’s suspicion of Joe’s sexuality. 

Harper and Prior, in a surreal dream sequence, share revelations about Joe’s hidden struggles with his sexual identity. As Harper confronts Joe, he denies but internally acknowledges his conflict. Roy Cohn, Joe’s mentor, faces his own crisis when diagnosed with AIDS, a reality he vehemently denies, insisting he has liver cancer.

The narrative escalates as Prior’s condition worsens and Louis, seeking solace, engages in anonymous encounters in Central Park. Meanwhile, Prior finds an unlikely ally in Belize, an ex-drag queen. 

The story takes a mystical turn when Prior begins to hear a mysterious voice, eventually revealed as a messenger angel. 

This supernatural element crescendos when an Angel dramatically descends into Prior’s apartment, announcing the commencement of “The Great Work.”

In Part Two, the story deepens. Harper retreats into a fantasy world, mistaking Brooklyn’s Prospect Park for Antarctica, while Joe, grappling with his identity, leaves her for a relationship with Louis. 

Roy Cohn, now in the hospital, forges a complex relationship with Belize, his nurse. The narrative weaves through themes of political machinations, personal crises, and supernatural encounters, with Prior receiving a prophetic book from the Angel, who pleads for human stillness to appease the abandoned Angels in Heaven.

The plot culminates with intense personal revelations and confrontations. 

Joe admits his sexuality to his conservative mother, Louis learns of Joe’s connection to the despised Roy Cohn, and Roy, disbarred and nearing death, experiences a moment of human connection with the ghost of Ethel Rosenberg.

In the emotional climax, Prior, challenged by the Angel, ascends to Heaven to refuse his prophecy, ultimately choosing life despite his suffering. The play concludes with a poignant epilogue set in 1990 with the surviving characters reflecting on their experiences. 

Angels in America Summary


Prior Walter

Prior Walter, a white gay man in his late 20s/early 30s, is the heart of “Angels in America”. Diagnosed with AIDS, Prior’s journey from vulnerability to agency is profound. Initially helpless, he struggles with his deteriorating health, Louis’s abandonment, and haunting visions. 

The climax of his arc is his confrontation with the Angel, where he gains control over his life, rejecting her demands and embracing his humanity with resilience and courage.

Louis Ironson

Louis Ironson, Prior’s partner, is a white, Jewish, gay man. Defined by his fear of conflict and emotional turmoil, Louis grapples with guilt after leaving Prior. 

His journey is marked by a struggle to reconcile his political ideals with personal actions, particularly in his affair with Joe and eventual confrontation with the realities of power and privilege.

Joe Pitt

Joe Pitt is a white, Mormon, closeted gay man torn between his traditional upbringing and his true self. His narrative arc is one of internal conflict, battling his suppressed sexuality and ethical dilemmas, particularly under the influence of Roy Cohn. 

Joe’s relationship with Louis and subsequent self-realization highlight the struggle of living authentically in a world of rigid expectations.

Harper Pitt

Harper Pitt, Joe’s wife, is a complex character battling mental illness and addiction. Trapped in a loveless marriage, Harper’s journey is one of escape and self-discovery. 

Her hallucinations offer both terror and solace, eventually leading her to a path of independence and hope as she embarks on a new life in San Francisco.

Roy Cohn

Roy Cohn, a fictionalized version of the historical figure, embodies the darker aspects of power and corruption. Battling AIDS while denying his sexuality, Roy represents the hypocrisy and cruelty of societal structures. 

Despite his ruthless nature, Roy’s character tests the humanity of those around him, ultimately receiving a moment of compassion at his end.


Belize, a Black gay man and former drag queen, stands as a pillar of compassion and strength. As a nurse and Prior’s ex-partner, Belize’s role is central in supporting others, especially in the face of Roy Cohn’s bigotry. His character challenges societal prejudices while demonstrating empathy and resilience.

Hannah Pitt

Hannah Pitt, Joe’s mother, is a stoic, Mormon woman whose journey is one of acceptance and transformation. 

Initially struggling with her son’s revelation, Hannah evolves into a nurturing figure for Harper and Prior. Her journey from a rigid, traditional mindset to a more open and compassionate stance reflects the broader themes of change and understanding in the play.

The Angel

The Angel, a celestial being with a powerful presence, symbolizes the supernatural and existential aspects of the play. Initially a voice of prophecy, she later reveals her flawed understanding of humanity. 

Her interactions with Prior, demanding stagnation for divine attention, ultimately fail, highlighting the play’s focus on human agency and progress.


1. The Complexity of Identity and Sexuality

“Angels in America” delves deeply into the intricate layers of identity and sexuality, particularly within the context of the AIDS crisis in the 1980s. 

The play explores the struggles of characters grappling with their sexual identities, often in conflict with societal norms and personal beliefs. 

Prior Walter’s open homosexuality and his battle with AIDS, juxtaposed with Joe Pitt’s internal conflict over his closeted homosexuality, highlight the societal stigma and personal turmoil associated with being gay during this era. 

The narrative also touches on the hypocrisy and denial prevalent in conservative circles, as epitomized by Roy Cohn, who refuses to accept his AIDS diagnosis as linked to his homosexuality, instead claiming to suffer from liver cancer. 

This theme is a poignant commentary on the struggle for acceptance and the quest for personal authenticity in the face of societal prejudice and fear.

2. The Interplay of Reality and Fantasy

The play masterfully blurs the lines between reality and fantasy, creating a narrative where supernatural elements and hallucinations are seamlessly interwoven with the characters’ real-life experiences. 

This theme is evident in the fantastical appearances of angels, ghosts, and imaginary friends, which symbolize the characters’ internal struggles and desires. 

For example, Harper’s hallucinations and journey to a fantastical version of Antarctica represent her escape from the painful realities of her marriage and her husband’s hidden sexuality. 

Similarly, Prior’s encounters with the Angel and his ancestors reflect his confrontation with mortality and his search for meaning in the midst of suffering. 

Through these surreal elements, the play probes into the depths of human consciousness, challenging the audience to discern between what is real and what is imagined, thereby underscoring the complexity of human perception and experience.

3. The Politics of Power and Oppression

“Angels in America” offers a critical examination of the dynamics of power and oppression, particularly in the political landscape of the 1980s. 

The play exposes the corruption and moral bankruptcy in the political system, as seen in the character of Roy Cohn, a powerful lawyer who manipulates the legal system for his gain and proudly recounts his role in the execution of Ethel Rosenberg. 

The interplay of political power and personal morality is a recurring motif, highlighting the ethical compromises and the human cost of political ambition. 

The narrative also addresses issues of racism, homophobia, and conservatism, painting a picture of a society struggling with inequality and injustice. 

This theme not only provides a historical context to the narrative but also raises timeless questions about the nature of power, the responsibility of those who wield it, and the impact of political decisions on individual lives and society at large.

Final Thoughts

“Angels in America” is a powerful, multi-layered narrative that masterfully intertwines personal dramas with broader social and political themes. 

Its exploration of complex characters dealing with AIDS, identity, and morality, set against a backdrop of 1980s America, makes it not just a compelling story, but a poignant commentary on human resilience and the enduring quest for understanding and acceptance. 

The play’s blend of realism with supernatural elements adds a unique dimension, elevating it beyond a mere social drama to a work of profound significance and timeless relevance.