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Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Summary, Characters and Themes

“Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?”, a seminal work of science fiction by Philip K. Dick, paints a haunting picture of a post-apocalyptic San Francisco. 

The backdrop of this gripping narrative is a world scarred by World War Terminus, a catastrophic conflict that left Earth shrouded in radioactive dust and drove most animal species to extinction. Amidst this dystopian setting, humans have colonized other worlds, and each emigrant is assigned a personal android, eerily similar to humans, to assist in adapting to their new environments.

Full Summary

Rick Deckard, our protagonist, is a seasoned bounty hunter. 

His world turns upside down when he’s tasked with hunting down six rogue androids who have violently turned against their masters on Mars and fled to Earth. 

Deckard, motivated by the desire to replace his electric sheep with a real animal—a symbol of status and emotional capacity in this ravaged world—embarks on this perilous mission.

Deckard’s journey leads him to the Rosen Association, creators of the advanced Nexus-6 android model. Here he encounters Rachael Rosen, who appears to be a member of the Rosen family but is revealed to be an android through the Voigt-Kampff test, a sophisticated measure of empathy designed to differentiate humans from androids.

This discovery sets off a chain of events that see Deckard navigating a labyrinth of deceptions, moral dilemmas, and existential crises.

As Deckard pursues the androids, we’re also introduced to John Isidore, a mentally impaired human, a victim of the toxic dust, living in desolation. 

His path crosses with Pris, an android who, along with her companions Roy and Irmgard Baty, seeks refuge in his apartment building. Isidore’s interactions with these androids bring a poignant perspective to the narrative, challenging the very notions of humanity and empathy.

Deckard’s hunt is marked by intrigue and danger, including a startling encounter with a fake police department run by androids and troubling revelations about his fellow bounty hunter, Phil Resch. 

Deckard grapples with his own sense of empathy, increasingly troubled by the task of killing beings who exhibit human-like emotions and intelligence.

In a world where religion and belief systems are intertwined with technology, Deckard’s mission is further complicated by revelations about the nature of Wilbur Mercer, the central figure of a global religion based on shared empathy. 

The revelation that Mercerism is a fabrication, orchestrated by an android, adds another layer to the existential questions the novel raises.

Deckard’s journey culminates in a series of dramatic and emotional confrontations, leading to a profound personal transformation. 

His discovery of a toad, an animal thought to be extinct, and the subsequent realization of its artificial nature, symbolizes the blurred lines between reality and imitation, nature and technology, in this hauntingly envisioned future.


  1. Rick Deckard: The protagonist of “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?”, Rick Deckard, is a complex bounty hunter working for the police department. His job is to “retire” dangerous androids, a task that challenges his moral compass. As the story unfolds, Deckard’s humanity is put to the test, especially as he develops conflicting emotions towards the androids, particularly evident in his attraction to Rachael Rosen. Deckard’s journey is a labyrinth of self-discovery, questioning the nature of humanity and empathy in a world where the line between human and machine blurs.

  2. Roy Baty: A pivotal Nexus-6 android, Roy Baty is the charismatic and cunning leader of the rebellious android group. His intelligence and determination make him a formidable adversary for Deckard. Roy’s leadership and strategic thinking highlight the sophisticated nature of the Nexus-6 models, challenging the preconceived notions of what androids are capable of feeling and thinking.

  3. Irmgard Baty: Irmgard, married to Roy Baty, is another Nexus-6 android on Rick’s list. Her character adds depth to the narrative, illustrating the complexity and emotions that androids can exhibit. Her relationship with Roy challenges the reader’s perceptions of androids, suggesting deeper layers of connection and loyalty beyond their programmed behavior.

  4. Iran Deckard: Iran, Rick Deckard’s wife, is a deeply spiritual and philosophical character. Her insights into their world add a rich layer of emotional depth to the narrative. Despite the rocky patches in their marriage, largely due to Rick’s underappreciation of her, Iran’s empathy and selflessness shine through, offering a stark contrast to the often cold and calculated world around her.

  5. Harry Bryant: As Rick Deckard’s boss at the police station, Harry Bryant plays a significant role in propelling the plot forward. His character represents the authoritative force behind Rick’s mission, embodying the societal norms and expectations of this dystopian world.

  6. Buster Friendly: A constant presence on television and radio, Buster Friendly’s character serves as a counterpoint to the religious figure Mercer. His reveal that Mercerism is a sham, and his own identity as an android, adds a layer of intrigue and deception to the story, challenging the characters’ and readers’ perceptions of truth and belief.

  7. Garland: An inspector with the android-run police department, Garland’s character adds a twist to the narrative. His attempt to sow distrust between Deckard and Resch, and his subsequent death, underscore the cunning strategies employed by androids to survive.

  8. Dave Holden: A fellow bounty hunter, Dave Holden’s injury sets the stage for Deckard’s involvement in retiring the Nexus-6 androids. Holden’s character represents the dangerous and challenging nature of the bounty hunter’s role in this dystopian society.

  9. John R. Isidore: A “chickenhead” labeled as intellectually inferior, John Isidore’s character provides a poignant perspective on empathy and loneliness. His friendship with the android Pris illustrates the novel’s exploration of what it means to be human, even in the face of societal marginalization.

  10. Max Polokov: Another Nexus-6 target, Polokov’s near-success in killing Rick underscores the dangers Deckard faces. Polokov’s character illustrates the cunning and survival instincts of the Nexus-6 models.

  11. Luba Luft: An opera singer and a Nexus-6, Luba Luft brings a cultural and artistic dimension to the android characters. Her evasion and eventual death at the hands of Phil Resch highlight the complex interplay between art, emotion, and the android’s quest for survival.

  12. Wilbur Mercer: The central figure of Mercerism, Wilbur Mercer embodies the spiritual and religious aspects of the novel. Mercer’s character and the revelation of his illusory nature question the foundations of faith and belief in this dystopian world.

  13. Phil Resch: A bounty hunter lacking empathy, Phil Resch represents a foil to Deckard. His character challenges the notion of what it means to be human, exploring the idea that the absence of empathy doesn’t necessarily define one as an android.

  14. Rachael Rosen: A Nexus-6 android owned by the Rosen Association, Rachael plays a critical role in Deckard’s mission and personal life. Her interactions with Deckard add layers of complexity to the themes of love, loyalty, and identity.

  15. Pris Stratton: Another android that Rick is tasked to retire, Pris’s character is intricately tied to John Isidore’s storyline. Her identity as Rachael’s doppelganger adds to the novel’s exploration of identity and perception.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? summary

Key Themes

1. The Nature of Empathy and Humanity

Central to the story is the exploration of empathy as the defining characteristic of humanity. 

In a world where androids mimic human behavior and appearance, empathy becomes the litmus test for distinguishing man from machine. The novel delves into the complexities of this notion, questioning whether the ability to empathize truly separates humans from androids. 

This theme is intricately woven through the narrative, from Deckard’s use of the Voigt-Kampff test, designed to measure emotional response, to his internal struggle with the task of killing androids who display human-like feelings. 

The story compellingly argues that empathy is more than a human trait; it’s a choice and an action, challenging the reader to reconsider what it means to be truly human.

2. The Impact of Technology on Society and Identity

Philip K. Dick masterfully illustrates a future where technology is deeply intertwined with everyday life, from electric animals substituting for real pets to androids serving as companions and workers. 

This theme scrutinizes the consequences of such advancements, particularly how they blur the lines between reality and artificiality. The novel provokes thought about the ethical implications of creating life-like androids and the societal impacts of relying on technology to fulfill emotional and social needs. 

As characters struggle with their relationships with androids and electric animals, the story reflects on how technology can both alleviate and exacerbate human loneliness and alienation. 

It invites readers to reflect on how our identity and humanity are shaped in an age where the artificial often replaces the natural.

3. Moral Ambiguity and Existentialism

Dick’s novel is rife with moral ambiguity, constantly challenging the characters’ and readers’ notions of right and wrong. 

Deckard’s job as a bounty hunter, tasked with ‘retiring’ androids, raises profound ethical questions. Are his actions justified because the androids are not human, or is there an inherent immorality in killing sentient beings? 

The narrative delves into existential themes, particularly through the character of Rick Deckard, who faces a crisis of identity and purpose. The revelation of Mercerism as a fabrication further deepens the existential crisis, posing questions about the nature of faith and belief in a world where realities are easily manufactured. 

The novel doesn’t offer clear answers but instead presents a complex web of choices and consequences, encouraging a contemplation of our own moral compass in an increasingly ambiguous world.

Final Thoughts

Philip K. Dick masterfully weaves a tale that is not only a thrilling narrative but also a deep exploration of what it means to be human in a world where the line between human and machine is ever so blurred. 

“Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” is a thought-provoking novel that continues to resonate and inspire, posing questions about empathy, identity, and the nature of reality itself.