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Surrounded by Idiots Summary and Key Lessons

Surrounded by Idiots is a self-help book by Thomas Erikson, published in 2014. It aims to make complex psychology simple and accessible by employing a method known as the DISC method, a model created by Dr. William Moulton Marston. 

This model identifies four main types of behavior that people exhibit. Erikson takes these principles and applies them to various aspects of life, including business, relationships, and personal development.

Surrounded by Idiots Summary

Erikson introduces us to the idea that everyone’s behavior can be categorized into four basic types. The author argues that understanding these types can lead to more effective communication and better relationships both personally and professionally.

The Four Behavioral Types

The four behavior types, based on the DISC model, are labeled by Erikson as Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue.

  1. Red: Dominant, assertive, and task-oriented. Red people are driven by results and tend to be strong leaders, but may come off as insensitive.

  2. Yellow: Influential, social, and creative. Yellow people are enthusiastic and enjoy engaging with others, often prioritizing relationships over tasks.

  3. Green: Stable, kind, and patient. Green people are empathetic and like to work in stable environments, but they might resist change.

  4. Blue: Analytical, careful, and logical. Blue people are detail-oriented and value accuracy and consistency but can be seen as overly critical.

Applying the Types

Erikson elaborates on how understanding these types can lead to better interactions with others. For example, recognizing the behavioral type of a colleague, friend, or partner can help you communicate with them more effectively by appealing to their motivations and values.

Communication Techniques

The author provides specific advice on how to communicate with each type. For example, Reds respond well to straightforward communication, while Yellows appreciate enthusiasm and personal connection.

Challenges and Misunderstandings

Erikson also explores the potential conflicts that can arise between different types. For example, the task-driven approach of a Red might clash with the people-focused approach of a Yellow. By understanding these dynamics, you can learn to navigate these challenges.

Erikson concludes by emphasizing the importance of empathy and flexibility in communication. He argues that recognizing and adapting to others’ behavioral types isn’t about manipulation, but about genuine understanding and respect.

The 4 Types of Human Behavior

1. Red 

Can be referred to as The Dominant. 


  • Goal-Oriented: Reds are focused on achieving their objectives. They often set ambitious targets and are relentless in pursuing them.
  • Decisive: They make decisions quickly and are confident in their choices. They dislike ambiguity and prefer clarity.
  • Impatient: Reds prefer things to be done quickly and efficiently and may become impatient with delays or indecisiveness.
  • Competitive: They love to win and see situations in terms of winners and losers. They often challenge others to do better and push for excellence.
  • Direct: They communicate in a straightforward manner, avoiding unnecessary details.

Example: In a business meeting, a Red might quickly outline their plan to increase sales and immediately assign tasks to team members, expecting quick results.

How to Interact: To work effectively with a Red, one should be concise and clear, respecting their need for efficiency.

2. Yellow

Can be referred to as The Influential. 


  • Social: Yellows thrive on social interaction and often take on the role of a team motivator.
  • Creative: They are often full of ideas and enjoy brainstorming sessions where they can be expressive.
  • Optimistic: They tend to see the positive side of things and are generally enthusiastic about new opportunities.
  • Impulsive: They may act without thinking things through completely, driven by their excitement and enthusiasm.
  • Needs Recognition: They like to be praised and recognized for their contributions.

Example: A Yellow in a project team might be the one generating creative ideas, engaging with others, and keeping the team’s energy high.

How to Interact: Engaging in social conversation, recognizing their efforts, and encouraging their creativity will make interactions with Yellows more effective.

3. Green

Can be referred to as The Steady. 


  • Patient: Greens are calm and patient, often acting as stabilizers in a group.
  • Supportive: They prioritize relationships and often focus on helping and supporting others.
  • Avoids Conflict: They prefer harmony and may avoid confrontation or aggressive discussions.
  • Resistant to Change: They value stability and may be hesitant to embrace sudden changes or new directions.
  • Empathetic: They often show deep understanding and empathy toward others.

Example: In a family setting, a Green might be the one who mediates disputes, listens without judgment, and provides consistent support.

How to Interact: Showing appreciation, being calm and sincere, and allowing them space to express themselves will resonate with Greens.

4. Blue

Can be referred to as The Conscientious. 


  • Analytical: Blues are keen on analyzing information and base their decisions on facts and logic.
  • Detail-Oriented: They pay close attention to details, often going deep into the data before making decisions.
  • Systematic: They prefer order and structure and may create elaborate plans and processes.
  • Reserved: They may appear distant or aloof, not because they’re uninterested, but because they are internally processing information.
  • High Standards: They often have high expectations of themselves and others, driven by their commitment to accuracy and quality.

Example: In a research team, a Blue might be the one who carefully analyzes data, ensuring that conclusions are supported by evidence, and outlines detailed methodologies.

How to Interact: Providing detailed information, allowing time for analysis, and respecting their need for precision will make interactions with Blues more fruitful.

These categories help explain complex human behaviors in a way that is accessible and actionable. By recognizing these traits in others (and ourselves), we can tailor our communication and collaboration methods to better suit individual needs, leading to more effective and harmonious relationships both professionally and personally. Remember, people are complex, and these categories are simplifications; most individuals will display a mix of these characteristics to varying degrees.

Surrounded by Idiots Summary

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Key Lessons 

1. Effective Communication Requires Understanding and Adaptation

The book emphasizes that one of the keys to successful communication is recognizing and understanding different behavioral types

By learning the characteristics of the Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue personalities, you can tailor your communication style to better resonate with each type.

For instance, if you’re working with a Blue who values details and analysis, you can take the time to provide comprehensive information and well-reasoned arguments. If you’re communicating with a Red, on the other hand, being direct and to the point is more effective.

2. Embrace Diversity of Thought and Approach

Understanding that each color represents a different set of strengths and weaknesses will allow you to appreciate the diversity within a team or relationship.

For example, in a team setting, Yellows may bring creativity and enthusiasm, Reds provide decisive leadership, Greens add empathy and support, while Blues contribute analytical precision. 

Recognizing and leveraging these diverse attributes can lead to a more well-rounded and effective team.

3. Self-Awareness Enhances Personal Growth and Relationships

By identifying your dominant color(s), you can become more aware of your own tendencies and how they might affect others.

For example, if you identify strongly with the Red behavior, you might recognize that your impatience or directness could be perceived as aggression by others. This awareness can help you moderate your approach when needed, improving both personal and professional relationships.

By encouraging us to not only analyze others but also themselves, the book promotes a level of self-awareness that can lead to personal growth and more meaningful connections with others.

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4. Avoiding Stereotypes and Embracing Complexity

While the book categorizes individuals into four primary behavioral types, it also reminds us that people are complex and multifaceted. No one fits perfectly into a single category, and understanding this complexity is essential for genuine connection and collaboration.

The color-coded system serves as a helpful starting point for understanding behavioral tendencies, but it should not be used to pigeonhole or stereotype individuals. 

People often exhibit characteristics of multiple colors, depending on the situation, their mood, or other influencing factors.

Final Thoughts

Overall, “Surrounded by Idiots” offers an easy-to-follow guide to human behavior and communication, aiming to help us navigate the complex world of interpersonal relationships. By understanding and empathizing with the different behavioral types, one can hope to communicate more effectively and build stronger connections with others.

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