Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston Summary, Characters and Themes

“Sweat” is a short story written by Zora Neale Hurston, a prominent African American author and anthropologist, first published in 1926. 

The story revolves around Delia Jones, a washerwoman who works tirelessly to support herself and her abusive husband, Sykes. Delia is a strong and hardworking woman who faces numerous challenges in her life, including her tumultuous relationship with Sykes and the constant struggle for financial stability.


The story kicks off late on a Sunday night with Delia Jones, a washerwoman, sorting clothes in her kitchen after church. She ponders the whereabouts of her husband, Sykes (or “Syke”), who has taken her cart and pony. 

Suddenly, she feels a snakelike object fall onto her shoulder, which turns out to be Sykes’s whip tail. Despite her initial fear and subsequent scream, Sykes merely laughs at her. Their ensuing argument reveals Sykes’s disdain for Delia working on a Sunday and for white people, threatening to ban her work from the house.

In a bold move, Delia picks up a frying pan, asserting her independence and the fruits of her labor, which causes Sykes to back down and leave. 

Alone, Delia reflects on their abusive marriage, Sykes’s laziness, infidelity, and realizes change is hopeless. She resolves to protect herself, anticipating Sykes’s eventual downfall. When he returns home late, she remains indifferent to his insults and threats.

The narrative then shifts to a group of men on a store porch, suffering in the heat and observing Delia’s hard work. They criticize Sykes’s treatment of Delia and his affair with Bertha, suggesting drastic measures against him. 

The conversation lightens momentarily with the arrival of a watermelon, but the mood darkens again as Sykes and Bertha show up, flaunting their relationship. The men disperse, leaving Sykes to boast about his plans to replace Delia with Bertha.

Days later, Sykes’s introduction of a diamondback rattlesnake into their home terrifies Delia, who demands its removal. Sykes’s refusal leads to Delia’s growing anger and determination. 

Following a church service, Delia returns home to find the snake missing from its box, hoping for a change. Her optimism turns to horror when she discovers the snake in a laundry basket. She narrowly escapes and spends the night in a hayloft, oscillating between fear and rage.

The climax unfolds as Sykes attempts to remove the snake, unaware of its location. Delia, hidden outside, hears his struggle with the snake and his eventual, painful defeat. She witnesses his suffering but chooses not to intervene, understanding the depth of his realization and the consequences of his actions. 

In the end, Delia stands silently as Sykes succumbs to the venom, a poignant conclusion to their tumultuous relationship.

Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston Summary


Delia Jones

Delia Jones emerges as the resilient and industrious protagonist of “Sweat.” As a washerwoman, she embodies hard work and determination, navigating the challenges of an abusive and exploitative marriage with dignity. 

Her character arc from a fearful and submissive wife to a woman asserting her independence and moral righteousness reflects her inner strength and resolve. 

Delia’s journey underscores themes of empowerment, resistance against oppression, and the quest for self-worth in the face of adversity.

Sykes Jones

Sykes Jones stands as the antagonist, embodying cruelty, laziness, and betrayal. His abusive behavior towards Delia, combined with his infidelity and manipulation, highlights his moral bankruptcy and lack of empathy. 

Sykes’s actions drive the narrative’s conflict, serving as a catalyst for Delia’s transformation. His eventual downfall, precipitated by his own malevolence and hubris, serves as a poetic justice and underscores the narrative’s moral stance on the consequences of evil deeds.


Bertha, Sykes’s mistress, represents temptation and the external embodiment of Sykes’s infidelity. Her character is not deeply explored, but her presence in the story amplifies the themes of betrayal and moral decay. 

Bertha’s role in the narrative highlights societal attitudes towards adultery and the complexities of the relationships entangled by Sykes’s actions.

The Community

The community, particularly the group of men on the store porch, serves as a chorus, commenting on the main characters’ actions and reflecting societal norms and values. 

Their disapproval of Sykes’s treatment of Delia and their brief contemplation of intervening reveal the community’s awareness and tacit complicity in the domestic strife. The community’s role emphasizes the impact of societal judgment and the collective conscience in shaping individual destinies.


1. The Struggle for Female Empowerment and Autonomy

“Sweat” delves deeply into the theme of female empowerment through the protagonist, Delia Jones. 

In a time and society where women, especially African American women, faced significant oppression and had limited rights, Delia represents resilience and determination. Despite enduring years of physical and emotional abuse from her husband, Sykes, Delia steadfastly manages her own life and work as a washerwoman. 

Her refusal to back down in the face of Sykes’s threats and her eventual indirect triumph over him symbolize a broader struggle for female autonomy and empowerment. 

Delia’s journey from fear to a quiet strength showcases Hurston’s exploration of a woman reclaiming her agency and space in a male-dominated world.

2. The Impact of Abuse on Relationships and Personal Growth

Hurston intricately explores the dynamics of an abusive relationship and its effects on the victim’s psyche and life. 

Sykes’s cruelty and infidelity are not just plot devices but serve to highlight the psychological and emotional toll such abuse takes on Delia. The story examines how sustained abuse can erode love, trust, and even the sense of self, leading to a complex mix of fear, anger, and eventual apathy in the victim. 

However, it also portrays abuse’s role in catalyzing personal growth and resilience. 

Delia’s evolution from a scared, submissive wife to a woman who can stand up for herself and make peace with her decisions, even in the face of danger, speaks to the strength that can emerge from adversity.

3. Race, Class, and Gender Intersectionality

While the primary focus of “Sweat” is on the personal struggle of Delia, the story is also imbued with themes of race, class, and gender, showcasing Hurston’s anthropological interest in the lives of African Americans in the early 20th century. 

The setting in a rural Southern Black community and the dialogue rich in vernacular speech not only add authenticity but also serve to highlight the intersectional challenges faced by characters. 

Delia’s position as a Black woman in a segregated society adds layers to her struggle, as she navigates not just gender oppression but also racial and class discrimination. Her work, serving white families, and Sykes’s disdain for it, reflect the complex interplay of race and class. 

The story implicitly critiques the societal structures that perpetuate inequalities, making a powerful statement on the interconnectedness of race, class, and gender struggles.

Final Thoughts

“Sweat” by Zora Neale Hurston is a profound exploration of struggle, empowerment, and retribution within the context of an African American woman’s life in the early 20th century. 

Hurston masterfully uses dialect, setting, and symbolism to bring forward a narrative that is both specific in its examination of race, gender, and community dynamics, and universal in its themes of resilience and justice. 

The story not only offers a glimpse into the cultural and social fabric of the time but also serves as a testament to the human spirit’s capacity to endure and overcome oppression.