“The Cherry Orchard” is a play written by Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. It was first published in 1904 and premiered in Moscow the same year.
The plot revolves around an aristocratic Russian family facing financial ruin and the impending sale of their estate, which includes a beloved cherry orchard. The family, led by the matriarch Lyuba Ranevskaya, struggles to come to terms with the changing social and economic landscape of Russia at the turn of the 20th century. The play explores themes of social change, the passing of old orders, the complexities of human relationships, and the inevitability of change.
In the cool dawn of a May day, the Cherry Orchard estate buzzes with anticipation for the return of Lyuba Ranevsky, the owner who has spent the last five years in Paris with a lover following her young son Grisha’s tragic drowning.
Yermolay Lopakhin, a local businessman who harbors mixed feelings towards Lyuba due to her reminders of his humble origins, and Dunyasha, the maid, await her arrival amidst the blooming cherry blossoms.
Lyuba arrives, bringing with her a diverse entourage: her daughter Anya, Anya’s governess Charlotte, the elderly manservant Firs, her carefree older brother Leonid Gayev, her adopted daughter Varya, and Charlotte’s dog.
Despite her near penniless state from lavish spending, Lyuba finds joy in returning to her Russian home and the family estate.
Yermolay confronts the family with the grim reality of their debts, suggesting the estate’s sale at auction as an inevitable outcome.
He proposes a solution: subdividing the property for cottages to rent to vacationers, a lucrative venture given the area’s rising tourism. However, Lyuba and Leonid dismiss the idea, unwilling to destroy the cherished cherry orchard.
Before leaving, Yermolay extends a 50,000 ruble loan offer for purchasing the estate at auction, expressing his despair over the lack of alternatives to save the property. The arrival of Peter Trofimov, Grisha’s former tutor, reopens old wounds for Lyuba.
Leonid then presents three strategies to salvage the estate: a loan from a banker friend, using Yermolay’s loan without cutting down the orchard, or seeking assistance from a wealthy aunt in Yaroslavl.
The estate’s servants, Yasha and Yephikodov, compete for Dunyasha’s affection as the debate over Yermolay’s proposal continues.
Lyuba’s revelation of her tumultuous relationship with her Parisian lover and her disdain for selling the estate highlight her desperation. Amid discussions, an unidentified string snaps, unsettling everyone except Peter and Anya, who remain as Varya suspects them of an affair.
Peter declares their transcendent stance on love, and Yephikodov’s melancholic guitar playing closes the act.
As Lyuba hosts a party during the auction, Charlotte entertains with magic tricks, but Lyuba’s anxiety over the orchard’s fate and her quarrel with Peter underscore her refusal to confront her financial ruin.
Yermolay’s purchase of the estate at auction and his intention to fell the orchard leave Lyuba distraught, with Anya’s attempts at consolation failing.
In the final act set in October, the imminent destruction of the orchard prompts departures.
Despite assurances, Firs is forgotten and left behind, lamenting his missed life opportunities as he dies alone, accompanied only by the sound of the orchard being cut down.
Lyuba Ranevsky is the tragic protagonist, embodying the decline of the Russian aristocracy. Her emotional attachment to the cherry orchard, combined with her financial irresponsibility and nostalgia, renders her incapable of adapting to changing times.
Her return from Paris marks a failed attempt to escape her past sorrows, including her son’s death, and she remains a figure of lost grace and fading privilege throughout the play.
A self-made businessman, Yermolay Lopakhin represents the rising middle class and new economic forces reshaping Russia. His background as a peasant and his financial success contrast sharply with the Ranevskys’ decline.
Despite his practical solution to save the estate, his proposals are rejected, underscoring the gap between old aristocracy and the new bourgeoisie. His purchase of the estate signifies the social shift occurring in Russia.
Anya, Lyuba’s daughter, symbolizes hope and the potential for renewal. She is receptive to change and supports Lopakhin’s ideas, unlike her mother and uncle. Anya’s youth and optimism contrast with the older generation’s despair and resistance, suggesting a brighter future beyond the constraints of the past.
Lyuba’s brother, Leonid Gayev, is a comic figure whose nostalgia for the past and inability to deal with the present reflect the impracticality and ineffectiveness of the aristocracy. His attachment to the cherry orchard and his avoidance of reality contribute to the family’s downfall.
Gayev’s character underscores the theme of inevitable change and the obsolescence of the old social order.
Lyuba’s adopted daughter, Varya, is caught between the past and the future. She is pragmatic and hardworking, contrasting with the rest of her family’s detachment from reality. Varya’s unfulfilled relationship with Lopakhin and her anxiety about the estate’s fate reflect the uncertainty and transitional nature of the period.
Grisha’s former tutor, Peter Trofimov serves as the ideological voice of the play, advocating for social change and intellectual engagement.
His discussions on work, love, and societal progress challenge the other characters’ complacency and highlight the play’s broader themes of transformation and the need to embrace new philosophies.
The elderly manservant, Firs, represents the old order and its disintegration. His loyalty to the family and his nostalgia for the serfdom era underscore the human cost of societal change.
Firs’ abandonment and death in the empty house poignantly symbolize the end of an era and the passing of traditional values.
Charlotte, Yasha, and Simon Yephikodov
These characters add depth and variety to the social tapestry of the play. Charlotte, the governess, with her foreignness and magic tricks, highlights the eccentricities of the Ranevsky household.
Yasha, the young servant, embodies selfishness and opportunism, contrasting with the loyalty of older servants like Firs. Simon Yephikodov, the accident-prone clerk, provides comic relief while also reflecting unrequited love and personal misfortune.
1. The Inevitability of Change and Social Transformation
“The Cherry Orchard” deeply explores the theme of change, particularly through the lens of social and economic transformation in Russia at the turn of the 20th century.
The estate’s sale and the proposed destruction of the cherry orchard symbolize the end of the aristocratic era and the rise of a new social order. Chekhov masterfully illustrates the reluctance of the old nobility, represented by Lyuba Ranevsky and her family, to adapt to the changing times, contrasting it with the pragmatic approach of Yermolay Lopakhin, a businessman of peasant origin.
This shift reflects broader societal changes, including the rise of the bourgeoisie and the decline of the aristocracy, encapsulating the tumultuous period of pre-revolutionary Russia.
The play suggests that change is not only inevitable but also necessary, despite the nostalgia and resistance it may encounter.
2. The Loss of Heritage and Connection to the Past
The cherry orchard itself is a potent symbol of heritage, memory, and the past.
Its potential destruction to make way for new economic opportunities speaks to the theme of losing one’s heritage and the pain of disconnecting from the past.
For Lyuba and her family, the orchard represents not just their social status but also their personal memories and history, including the life and death of Lyuba’s son.
Chekhov uses the orchard to illustrate how personal and societal histories are intertwined with physical spaces, and how the loss of these spaces can feel like a loss of identity and continuity.
The characters’ struggle to preserve the orchard mirrors the broader human struggle to hold onto the past in the face of relentless progress and change.
3. Class Struggle and Economic Disparity
Chekhov subtly presents the theme of class struggle and economic disparity throughout the narrative.
The contrast between the aristocratic Ranevsky family and the self-made businessman Lopakhin, who comes from a line of serfs, highlights the shifting economic landscapes and class dynamics of the time.
Lopakhin’s purchase of the estate, which once belonged to the family that owned his ancestors, symbolizes the reversal of fortunes and the rise of new economic powers. The play also touches on the plight of the servants and the poor, exemplified by the character of Firs and the homeless man, underscoring the vast disparities between the wealthy and the impoverished.
Through these characters and their interactions, Chekhov critiques the social and economic inequalities of his time, pointing to the need for change and the potential for societal progress.
“The Cherry Orchard,” Chekov’s commentary on Russia’s societal changes, juxtaposes the old aristocracy’s resistance with the emerging Marxist and Darwinist ideologies through its characters and the symbolic breaking string.
Written during Chekov’s last days in Yalta, the play’s mixed initial reception did not obscure its deeper political messages, marking it as a significant work in the context of Russia’s tumultuous transition.