Arguably one of the most grandiose novels of the 20th century, The Great Gatsby, written by F. Scott Fitzgerald and first published in 1925, is one of the most celebrated works in American Literature.
The book chronicles Jay Gatsby’s tragic pursuit of his lost love, Daisy Buchanan, amid the extravagance and moral vacuity of the 1920s. Narrated by Nick Carraway, it explores the illusory nature of the American Dream, ultimately revealing the decay beneath the glitter of the Jazz Age.
The Great Gatsby Summary
Once upon a time in 1922, there was this guy Nick Carraway.
He’s fresh out of Minnesota, and lands in New York to hustle in the bond business. Picture him setting up shop in West Egg, Long Island – think of it as the flashy new money neighborhood. Nick’s a Yale grad with some fancy connections over in East Egg, where the old money crowd hangs out.
So, one fine evening, Nick drives over to East Egg for dinner at his cousin Daisy’s place. She’s married to Tom Buchanan, a former Yale buddy of Nick’s. There, he meets Jordan Baker, a pro golfer with an attitude and looks to match.
Gossip alert: Jordan spills the tea about Tom’s side chick.
After dinner, Nick spots his enigmatic neighbor, Jay Gatsby, reaching out towards a green light across the water. Mysterious much?
Fast forward a bit, and Tom drags Nick to a wild party in NYC. Enter Myrtle Wilson, Tom’s mistress, who ends up with a broken nose courtesy of Tom. Drama alert!
Nick then gets a taste of Gatsby’s legendary Saturday night blowouts and finally meets the man himself. Gatsby’s got a secret, which he shares with Jordan, and she later tells Nick: Gatsby’s been carrying a torch for Daisy since forever and bought his mansion just to be close to her.
Plot twist: Nick plays Cupid, setting up a meet-cute between Gatsby and Daisy. Old flames rekindle fast.
Cue a super awkward lunch at Daisy’s with Tom, Jordan, Gatsby, and Nick. Tom figures out the Daisy-Gatsby affair and flips. He confronts Gatsby at the Plaza Hotel in NYC. Gatsby claims Daisy never loved Tom. Daisy’s like, “Well, actually…” leaving Gatsby shocked. Tom, playing the bad guy, spills Gatsby’s shady past and sends Daisy off with Gatsby, smugly knowing she won’t leave him.
On their way back, Daisy, driving Gatsby’s car, accidentally hits and kills Myrtle. Tom uses this to paint Gatsby as the bad guy.
The tragedy escalates when George Wilson, Myrtle’s husband, thinks Gatsby, the car owner, is also Myrtle’s lover. He finds Gatsby and shoots him before taking his own life.
Nick, disillusioned by all the East Coast drama and fakeness, organizes Gatsby’s funeral, which is barely attended.
He breaks up with Jordan, confronts Tom, but doesn’t snitch on Daisy. Finally, he leaves for Minnesota, reflecting on Gatsby’s dream and the relentless push of life against the past.
1. The Illusory Nature of the American Dream
The Great Gatsby scrutinizes the American Dream, the idea that anyone, regardless of their background, can achieve success and prosperity through hard work and determination.
However, the novel suggests that this dream is often an illusion. Gatsby’s pursuit of wealth and status to win Daisy’s love ultimately leads to his downfall. This underscores the theme that relentless pursuit of material wealth and social status can lead to moral and personal decay.
The novel invites readers to question the true meaning of success and the ethical implications of achieving it at any cost.
This lesson is a reminder to balance ambition with ethical considerations and to recognize that the blind pursuit of wealth and status might not lead to true happiness or fulfillment. It encourages a critical examination of what success truly means and highlights the importance of maintaining moral integrity in the pursuit of one’s goals.
2. The Disillusionment of Idealism
Jay Gatsby, the protagonist, is the embodiment of idealism, holding onto a romanticized vision of life and love that is disconnected from reality.
His idealization of Daisy, whom he perceives as perfect and worthy of his years of striving, blinds him to the true nature of his situation and her character.
The novel illustrates how clinging to an idealized past or an unattainable dream can prevent individuals from living in the present and accepting reality. Gatsby’s tragic end serves as a poignant reminder of the dangers of living in the thrall of an unreachable ideal.
This lesson teaches the importance of grounding one’s aspirations and affections in reality. It encourages individuals to be mindful of the dangers of idealization in relationships, goals, and self-perception, advocating for a more balanced and realistic approach to life and ambition.
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3. The Decay of Morality Among the Wealthy
Fitzgerald vividly portrays the moral decay hidden beneath the glittering surface of high society. The characters in the novel, particularly those from the upper class like Tom and Daisy Buchanan, are depicted as shallow, self-absorbed, and indifferent to the consequences of their actions.
Their wealth shields them from the repercussions that others, like Gatsby and George Wilson, must face. The novel presents a critique of the moral emptiness that can accompany extreme wealth and social privilege, where material excess and the pursuit of pleasure often trump empathy and ethical behavior.
This lesson serves as a caution against the corrupting influence of wealth and power. It highlights the need for ethical responsibility, particularly among those in privileged positions, and underscores the importance of empathy and moral integrity regardless of one’s social or economic status.
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