Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Summary, Characters and Themes

“Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?” is a play by Edward Albee first staged in 1962. This intense and gripping drama explores the complexities of marriage, the pain of illusion versus reality, and the destructive nature of personal and social expectations. 

The play is set in the home of a middle-aged couple, George and Martha, who, after a university faculty party, invite a younger couple, Nick and Honey, to their home for late-night drinks. This setup serves as the stage for an evening of brutal honesty and psychological warfare.


Act 1: Fun and Games

The play opens with George and Martha returning from a faculty party at the small New England college where George works as a history professor and Martha’s father is the president. It’s clear from the beginning that their relationship is fraught with tension, characterized by bitter and sarcastic exchanges. 

Despite the late hour, Martha informs George that she has invited a young biology professor, Nick, and his wife, Honey, over for drinks. 

When the guests arrive, they quickly become entangled in George and Martha’s toxic games of humiliation and one-upmanship. 

The act is filled with sharp wit, dark humor, and a palpable sense of unease as the older couple exposes their guests—and each other—to cruel and manipulative behavior.

Act 2: Walpurgisnacht

The second act delves deeper into the psychological underpinnings of the characters. Named after a European festival associated with witches and the supernatural, this act underscores the night’s descent into chaos and revelation. 

As the night progresses, George and Martha’s attacks on each other become more vicious and personal. It becomes apparent that their marriage is built on a foundation of illusions and lies, particularly concerning their son, whose existence is hinted at but remains ambiguous. 

Nick and Honey’s own secrets start to unravel, revealing Nick’s career ambitions and Honey’s fears about pregnancy and her marriage. 

The act ends with George preparing to reveal his most devastating game yet, signaling a climax to the night’s cruelty.

Act 3: The Exorcism

The final act brings the emotional and psychological conflict to a head. 

George announces a game called “Bringing Up Baby,” where he reads from a book that mirrors the childlessness of him and Martha, exposing the deepest and most painful illusion of their lives: the son they often speak of does not actually exist. This revelation is George’s attempt to confront and exorcise the lies that have poisoned their marriage. 

Martha, devastated and stripped of her defenses, confronts the reality of her relationship with George and the emptiness of their lives without their imagined child. 

The play concludes with George and Martha, in a moment of rare tenderness and vulnerability, facing the harsh dawn of a new day and the possibility of beginning again, freed from their delusions.

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Summary



George is a history professor at a small college, characterized by his passive-aggressive demeanor and biting wit. He appears to be the more submissive partner in his marriage to Martha, often the target of her scorn. However, his seemingly passive exterior masks a deep resentment and a cunning ability to manipulate. 

George uses his intelligence and knowledge of personal secrets to control and undermine others, particularly Martha. His complex character reveals a man disillusioned with his career, embittered by his failures, and desperate to maintain some sense of power within his tumultuous marriage.


Martha, the daughter of the college president, is loud, boisterous, and deeply unhappy. Her aggressive and domineering personality often overshadows George’s more subdued nature. 

Martha’s behavior reflects her frustration with her unfulfilled life, her marriage’s failures, and her unmet desires for affection and success. 

She engages in the verbal and emotional demolition of George as a way to vent her frustrations and disappointments, yet it becomes clear that her cruelty is a twisted form of dependence on him. Martha’s vulnerability ultimately surfaces, exposing the pain and longing beneath her brash exterior.


Nick is a young biology professor who, along with his wife Honey, becomes entangled in George and Martha’s night of psychological warfare. Ambitious and somewhat shallow, Nick represents the new generation aiming to ascend the academic ladder by any means necessary. 

His interactions with George and Martha reveal his opportunistic nature and his discomfort with the depth of the older couple’s dysfunction. 

Nick’s character serves as a foil to George, highlighting themes of youth versus aging, ambition versus disillusionment, and the superficial versus the authentic.


Honey is Nick’s naive and fragile wife, whose backstory unfolds to reveal deeper layers of complexity and sadness. Initially presented as a somewhat dim and hysterical character, Honey’s own secrets—her fear of pregnancy, her hysterical pregnancies, and her marriage’s foundation on pretenses—gradually surface. 

She embodies the themes of illusion versus reality and the personal costs of maintaining appearances. 

Honey’s character highlights the destructive impact of secrets and the pervasive nature of dysfunction, not just in George and Martha’s marriage, but in the seemingly younger, more naive generation represented by her and Nick.


1. Illusion vs. Reality

One of the most striking themes in Albee’s play is the tension between illusion and reality. 

George and Martha, trapped in a web of their own lies and fantasies, epitomize the human tendency to fabricate personal narratives that shield them from their unpalatable truths. Throughout the night, they engage in games that blur the lines between what is real and what is imagined, particularly with the existence of their son. 

This theme is not just limited to the personal level but extends to a broader critique of societal norms and expectations, where appearances often overshadow truth. 

The play meticulously unravels how these illusions are not mere fabrications but serve as coping mechanisms for deeper, unaddressed pain, leading the audience to question the very nature of truth and the realities we choose to accept or deny.

2. The Nature of Marriage

Albee scrutinizes the institution of marriage through the volatile relationship of George and Martha. 

Their marriage, marked by bitterness, resentment, and mutual deception, serves as a dark mirror reflecting the complexities and sometimes the hidden agonies of matrimonial bonds. 

Through their interactions, the play explores how marriage can become a battleground for power, identity, and validation. Yet, in their moments of vulnerability, George and Martha reveal a deep, albeit twisted, dependence on each other that suggests marriage can also be a source of comfort and understanding, however perverse it may appear. 

This duality presents marriage as a multifaceted institution, capable of both destruction and profound, if unconventional, companionship.

3. Impact of Societal Expectations

The characters in the play are all, in one way or another, victims of societal expectations. 

Martha is burdened by her father’s success and the expectation to have a similarly illustrious marriage and career, while George feels the pressure of not fulfilling the traditional role of a successful academic. 

Nick and Honey, too, are emblematic of the American Dream’s promise and its underlying pressures — the ambition for success, the ideal of a perfect marriage, and the desire for offspring. 

These societal norms and expectations exacerbate the characters’ personal failures and insecurities, driving them into further despair and disillusionment. 

Albee uses these dynamics to critique the social constructs that dictate personal worth and success, highlighting the alienation and conflict they engender within personal relationships and within oneself.

Final Thoughts

“Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?” is a powerful exploration of the illusions people create to cope with their disappointments and the brutal reality that ensues when those illusions are stripped away. 

Through the night’s dark journey, Albee examines themes of identity, reality, and the destructive force of illusions in personal relationships. 

The title itself, a play on the song “Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?” and the famous writer Virginia Woolf, hints at the fear of facing harsh truths lurking beneath the surface of everyday life.